In the study of Beagle breeds, the two most common birth defects were hydrocephaly and open fontanelle. Other defects observed include cleft lip and palate, cryptorchidism and monorchidism, limb deformity, inguinal hernia, and hydrocephaly. The incidence of fetal anasarca was less than one percent.
CFA12 FGF4 retrogene
Chondrodystrophy is a condition in which the intervertebral disc fails to regenerate, resulting in dystrophic mineralization and predictable biochemical changes. Known to be a cause of short stature in the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever, chondrodystrophy is caused by an aberrant fibroblast growth factor 4 retrogene insertion on chromosome 12. This mutation has been linked with the degenerative disc disease in several dog breeds. The segregation of CFA12 FGF4 retrogene in a single breed allows researchers to investigate the radiographic appearance of chondrodystrophy.
Mutations in the ADAMTS10 gene cause two hereditary dog diseases: primary open angle glaucoma and posterior segment syndrome. POAG is an autosomal recessive disorder that causes pressure inside the eye. Untreated, the pressure can cause optic nerve damage, vision loss, and lens subluxation. While carriers of the gene do not show symptoms, an ADAMTS10 DNA test can detect the mutation. While other forms of the disease are also caused by the same gene, only glaucoma is hereditary.
The Beagle is susceptible to an inherited disorder known as Amyloidosis. Amyloid deposits in the organs and tissues impede normal functions. In dogs, prolonged accumulation of amyloid can lead to organ failure. The most common organs affected by amyloid deposition are the liver and kidneys. Other organs can also be affected. This disease is highly treatable, and if detected in an early stage, treatment will significantly improve the dog’s quality of life.
There are several ways to confirm if your dog has Cushing’s disease. Veterinary examinations and tests can confirm the diagnosis. Blood and urine tests are usually ordered by veterinarians to check for elevated cortisol and alkaline phosphatase levels. The veterinarian may also administer a test known as an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test. This test involves administering a single injection of ACTH into the dog’s adrenal glands. The vet will then conduct a second blood test several hours later to see if the dog is still suffering from Cushing’s disease.
Dogs of the Beagle breed are susceptible to overweight status, according to research. The genetic diseases in this breed are linked to the neurological control of appetite and energy homeostasis. In Labradors and Flat-coat Retrievers, obesity is associated with mutations affecting the hypothalamic melanocortin (HMC) system. Obesity in dogs has a strong genetic component, and understanding why some dogs are more prone to weight gain may provide a better understanding of human health risks. Ultimately, understanding obesity in dogs may lead to the development of new drugs to prevent obesity in humans.
Dog owners should be aware of the symptoms of distichiasis and the need for treatment. The disease can be fatal if left untreated, and if not caught in time, it can lead to corneal ulcers and secondary bacterial infections. In some severe cases, the disease can even result in the loss of an eye. The eyelids and eyeball may be sore or irritated that the affected dog cannot close them properly. Surgical treatments for distichiasis often result in excessive scarring on the eyelids, and regrowth of hair may occur.
A genetic mutation known as Musladin-Lueke syndrome (MLS) affects the Beagle breed. This condition affects the skin and connective tissues of the dog, resulting in abnormalities in appearance and gait. Breeders are encouraged to test their dogs for MLS and to avoid breeding affected dogs to avoid passing the disease on to future generations. Genetic knowledge can help reduce the risk of this condition by eliminating sporadic cases and improving the quality of dog breeding.